Conformance tester

WiMAX, the Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, is a telecommunications technology aimed at providing wireless data over long distances in a variety of ways, from point-to-point links to full mobile cellular type access.

WiMAX is the first standard that is based on OFDM/OFDMA and MIMO technologies. This IEEE non-3G standardization approach gives many new manufacturers and operators the opportunity to enter the cellular market. With its extensive IP capabilities, WiMAX is technically very competitive with today's cellular systems. The decision from the ITU to open the 3G TDD spectrum for WiMAX has also solved the spectrum problems.

WiMAX with the broadest of product portfolios providing unique solutions for MIMO and production testing. Moreover, as one of the two companies selected to develop a radio conformance tester for mobile WiMAX, is once again demonstrating its commitment to be the leading supplier for certification test equipment for wireless communications.

Deployment Scenario / Applications

WiMAX enables mobile Internet. By implementing WiMAX, today's broadband technologies such as WLAN have taken the step to mobility. The high IP support provided by WiMAX is also ideally suited for the Internet. But also QoS is implemented so that VoiP is enabled. With this capability, WiMAX has enhanced its capabilities to a cellular system such as 3GPP or 3GPP2.

Deployment is mainly foreseen in licensed bands around the world. Thus, operators are involved. The most important deployments are in the 2.3 GHz, 2.5 GHz, and 3.5 GHz bands (profiles 1A, 3A, and 5) as well as in the ITU TDD spectrum (1.9 GHz and 2 GHz).

WiMAX is a cost-effective, fully integrated MAC and PHY mixed-signal baseband processor for Broadband Wireless Access applications. This SoC is designed to support frequencies ranging from 2 to11GHz in both licensed and unlicensed bands. WiMAX SoC is fully compliant with the IEEE 802.16-2004 WiMAX standard and can be configured to be used in both base station and subscriber station applications. WiMAX Reference Design for enabling equipment manufacturers to develop WiMAX Forum certified products. WiMAX is currently being implemented in WiMAX Forum certified products.

The WiMAX Forum is the organization dedicated to certifying the interoperability of WiMAX products.[16] Those that pass conformance and interoperability testing achieve the "WiMAX Forum Certified" designation and can display this mark on their products and marketing materials. Some vendors claim that their equipment is "WiMAX-ready", "WiMAX-compliant", or "pre-WiMAX", if they are not officially WiMAX Forum Certified.

Bluetooth headsets

Bluetooth wireless technology is a short-range communications technology intended to replace the cables connecting portable and/or fixed devices while maintaining high levels of security. The key features of Bluetooth technology are robustness, low power, and low cost. The Bluetooth specification defines a uniform structure for a wide range of devices to connect and communicate with each other.

Bluetooth technology has achieved global acceptance such that any Bluetooth enabled device, almost everywhere in the world, can connect to other Bluetooth enabled devices in proximity. Bluetooth enabled electronic devices connect and communicate wirelessly through short-range, ad hoc networks known as piconets. Each device can simultaneously communicate with up to seven other devices within a single piconet. Each device can also belong to several piconets simultaneously. Piconets are established dynamically and automatically as Bluetooth enabled devices enter and leave radio proximity.

A fundamental Bluetooth wireless technology strength is the ability to simultaneously handle both data and voice transmissions. This enables users to enjoy variety of innovative solutions such as a hands-free headset for voice calls, printing and fax capabilities, and synchronizing PDA, laptop, and mobile phone applications to name a few.

Bluetooth Headsets

Jabra FreeSpeak BT250

The high volume and clarity makes it easy to forget you're even using it, while the unique, behind-the-ear design and rotating earpiece create a comfortable fit.

Logitech Mobile Bluetooth headset

Overall sound quality is good, and since you don't have to contort your arm or ear to get it on your head (it fits behind your ear), it's one of the easiest headsets to put on. Just be wary of its large size and rather geeky look.

Motorola HS8910 Bluetooth wireless headset

It's stylish and small, with a slick oval shape and a large indicator light. It folds up to an even tinier size for easy transport. An especially nice touch is the folding boom microphone, which acts as the on/off switch.

Epox BT-HS01 Bluetooth headset

Epox is smaller than most headsets, which is a bonus. It also has a bit of style that makes it look less dorky than some other models. It took us a few seconds to get it working correctly, but once we did, volume and clarity were by and large good.

Walkie talkies

Walkie Talkies are great for business, personal and recreational use. One of the best benefits is that you have no additional costs. Once you own a two way radio you never have to be worried about monthly costs - because there are none!

The uses for license free portable two way radios are endless. Co-ordinating a school, church, or community event: Keeping volunteers organised is so much easier with two way radio. After you run a parade, carnival, or outing with everyone on the two way radio, you will wonder how you ever managed without Walkie Talkies

Organizing your neighborhood for block monitoring or disaster relief: In an emergency that eliminates phone services, being able to maintain contact with your neighbours without having to physically travel to each house is tremendously reassuring. Two Way Radios are an excellent way to help each other.

Teaching your kids: Giving kids a two way radio to use with a friend is wonderful. There's nothing better than having your very own private channel. What starts as just a fun gadget can lead to a lifelong interest in the real technology behind the buttons. A kid that can use a radio can make a real contribution at school, church, or community functions, as well!

Applications for license free two way radio in business is almost limitless. Think about it. If you business is a hotel, restaurant, office complex, warehouse, school or a leisure centre, just to mention a few, two way radios can save you time providing you with instant communication that is vital for success. Or if you are involved in outdoor events, sports or security you can understand that two way radios are invaluable in an emergency situation

Walkie-talkies are widely used in any setting where portable radio communications are necessary, including business, public safety, outdoor recreation, and the like, and devices are available at numerous price points from inexpensive analog units sold as toys up to ruggedized (i.e. waterproof or intrinsically safe) analog and digital units for use on boats or in heavy industry. Most countries, at the very least, will allow the sale of walkie-talkies for business, marine communications, and some personal uses such as CB radio, as well as amateur radio designs. Walkie-talkies, thanks to increasing use of miniaturized electronics, can be made very small, with some personal two-way UHF radio models being smaller than a pack of cigarettes (though VHF and HF units can be substantially larger due to the need for larger antennas and battery packs).

Land mobile radios

All VX-820 portables, as a standard feature, are rated for IP55 and IP57. This covers dust and water intrusion.

First, Ingress of dust shall not penetrate in a quantity to interfere with satisfactory operation of the apparatus or to impair safety.

IP55 : Water projected in jets against the enclosure from any direction shall have no harmful effects.

IP57 : Ingress of water in quantities causing harmful effects shall not be possible when the radio is submersed for 30 minutes at a depth of 3 feet .

The new VX-820 has the widest frequency range we have ever offered. VHF: 134 MHz ~ 174 MHz UHF: 450 MHz ~ 512 MHz

Following the sucess of our VX-600/900 increased audio power of 700 mW, these small portables pack the same 700 mW punch.

Adding to the increased audio output, the PIC control adds the ability to adjust the received frequency response to suit the environment. This pitch control enhances different sections of the audio spectrum to best suit your immediate work area.

Vertex VX-820 Two Way Radio

* Vertex VX-820 Two Way Radio * • 16 or 512 Channel Capacity * • No PF keys, 4 PF keys or 12 key DTMF pad plus 4 PF keys. * • LCD or no LCD * • Freq Range of 134 – 174 MHz (in one radio, no sub-bands) * • Freq Range of 450 – 512 MHz (in one radio, no sub-bands) * • 700 mW audio output power * Small package (only 4inches tall, 2 inches wide!)

Vertex Land Mobile Radios

Vertex VX-4200 series mobiles have 50 Watts of power on VHF and 45 Watts of power on UHF. You will find this radio has many advanced features built in, that are normally found only on higher priced mobiles such as; 2-tone Encode and Decode, remote Stun/Kill and audio companding for both narrow and wideband audio.

Vertex VX-5500 is the latest in Public Safety mobiles. With many features requested from Police and Fire agencies, the VX-5500 is the Public Safety mobile you can count on. Building on the solid VX-4000 RF and mechanical design, the VX-5500 adds more features and higher performance specifications.

Global positioning system

How Vehicle Location Tracking Works

The global positioning system (GPS) consists of 24 operational satellites (with several spares) orbiting the earth at an altitude of approximately 11,000 miles. The satellites orbit the earth twice per day in a pattern which ensures that at least 4 satellites can be viewed from the earth at any position any time of the day. Typically however between 5 and 7 satellites may be in view.

These satellites broadcast signals which are analysed by GPS receivers on the earth. The signals carry information such as the satellite idenitifier, it's position, and an extremely accurate date and time (derived from an on board atomic clock). GPS receivers on the ground use the signal from at least 4 satellites to determine their own position with an accuracy of around 10 to 20 metres.

Vehicle Idling - Monitor the length of time each vehicle has had its engine running but has not been moving. An incredibly simple way to reduce fuel bills and ensure proper vehicle use.

Vehicle Speed and Driver Behaviour - Keep a check on the speed, acceleration and deceleration rates of your fleet vehicles, along with their top journey speeds.

Vehicle tracking systems are commonly used by fleet operators for fleet management functions such as routing, dispatch, on-board information and security. Other applications include monitoring driving behavior, such as an employer of an employee, or a parent with a teen driver.Vehicle tracking systems are also popular in consumer vehicles as a theft prevention and retrieval device. Police can simply follow the signal emitted by the tracking system and locate the stolen vehicle. When used as a security system, a Vehicle Tracking System may serve as either an addition to or replacement for a traditional Car alarm. The existence of vehicle tracking device then can be used to reduce the insurance cost, because the loss-risk of the vehicle drops significantly.

What is GPS Tracking?

A GPS tracking unit is a device that uses the Global Positioning System to determine the precise location of a vehicle, person, or other asset to which it is attached and to record the position of the asset at regular intervals. With LandAirSea GPS systems, it records not only position, but also velocity, duration of time that the object remains stationary, direction etc. There are many uses for a GPS tracker, including:

Lithium polymer batteries

Two Way Radio Battery Information

Most companies offer three different types of Two Way Radio battery : Nickel Metal Hydride, Lithium Ion and Lithium Polymer. The basic differences between these types of battery and further battery information is detailed below.

Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH)

These batteries were introduced in the early 1990's as an improvement over older chemistries like Nickel Cadmium (NiCd). Although they may have a very slight memory effect, NiMH batteries are much more reliable than previous chemistries. Compared to a NiCd battery of equal size, a NiMh battery will run for 30-40% longer on each charge. NiMH batteries can also be recharged 60% in just 15 minutes. The unique NiMH chemistry packs much more power than NiCd. Additionally, NiMH batteries often have twice the lifespan of NiCds. Nimh use is increasing in countries with strict environmental codes, as NiMH is believed to have fewer toxic disposal limitation then NiCd. The drawback to NiMH batteries is it evolves more heat during charging, has a higher rate of self-discharge and is more difficult to terminate at full capacity during charging.

Lithium Ion (LiION) :

Li-ION have replaced NiMH batteries because they provide 4 distinct advantages :

1) 40% longer Standby and Talk Times than NiMh. 2) Lighter and more compact than NiMh batteries. 3) LiIon batteries do not suffer from memory effect . 4) The battery lifespan will be over 30% longer than NiMh batteries because the cells can accept more charge cycles.

Lithium Polymer (Li-Poly) :

The newest and most advanced technology for two way radio batteries. This brand new chemistry of battery allows for the most compact cells available. Li-Poly batteries are extremely light and in most cases very thin allowing for the highest battery life for the size. Lithium Polymer batteries share all of the benefits of Li-Ion plus can last up to twice as long .

Memory Effect :

The term "memory" in reference to batteries means the battery "remembers" its usual discharge point and superficially "needs" a charge whenever it hits that point. In other words, if you have a NiMh battery that always gets discharged to only 50% of its capacity, it will eventually not run below that 50% mark if you ever wanted to discharge it to a lower point.

Standby and Talk Times :

Standby and Talk Times are affected by a number of variables such as NiMh vs. Li-Ion vs. Li-Poly, Model and Age of Two Way Radio, Temperature, and Humidity. These variable factors make it difficult to determine the exact amount of Standby and Talk Time any given two way radio battery will provide. Also, in simple terms the higher the mAh rating of the battery the longer the Standby and Talk Time will be. Note: mAh stands for 'milli Amp hours' and is the measurement of a battery's storage capacity.

How to maximize the life of your battery :

There are several things you can do to maximize the useful life of your battery: Dirty battery contacts are the number one source of charging problems. Clean the battery contacts with alcohol and a cotton swab from time to time. Make sure no cotton is left on the contact points. Don't leave your rechargeable batteries dormant for extended periods. Take them for a "spin around the block" every so often. Batteries that sit idle for extended periods of time without charging begin to lose their ability to hold a charge and will self-discharge, so remember to charge them again before use. Always store batteries in a cool, dry place away from heat and metal objects.

Intitial Charge Cycle :

Initially new batteries (all types) must be charged for 14 - 16 hours continuously. All batteries require a "break-in" period, so don't be alarmed if your battery doesn't hold a full charge right away. A new battery may show false full charge as indicated on your charger. For the first 3 - 5 cycles, please make sure to charge the battery fully and drain it fully before recharging. This will properly condition the battery and will ensure that it will operate at its maximum capacity. This is recommended for all two way radio batteries.

Two Way Radio Battery

What you need to know about batteries. Important information on how you can get 40% longer standby and talk times with our two way radio batteries

Learn why buying a two way radio with a poor battery can cost you money.

Nickel metal hydride

Two Way Radio Antenna

What is the difference between a stubby and long antenna? The selection of an antenna is highly dependant on the desired coverage, distance from a repeater (if any), and how and where the radio will be held or carried. First, it's important to understand that most handheld antennas are 1/4 wave, meaning the length of the antenna itself (before being shortened by coiling or winding in plastic or rubber) is 1/4 the length of the radio wave of that frequency. As you go up in frequency, the length of the wave, or wavelength becomes shorter. This means that a UHF antenna is shorter than a VHF, and an 800 MHz antenna is even shorter yet. The higher your antenna is the better it will perform, so even though the wire in a stubby VHF antenna may be the same length as the wire in the regular VHF antenna, the stubby will not perform quite as well. Generally, if you need extended range, you want to stay away from stubby antennas, but if you need to be able to wear the radio on your belt all the time without it becoming o btrusive, a stubby antenna may be the way to go.

Two Way Radio Battery

Two Way Radio Battery Information Most companies offer three different types of Two Way Radio battery : Nickel Metal Hydride, Lithium Ion and Lithium Polymer. The basic differences between these types of battery and further battery information is at two way radio battery. Two Way Radio Headsets

Lightweight earphone, with in-line microphone and PTT (Push To Talk) Check out all the two way radios accessories including speaker/microphone with PTT and other communication kits

Two Way Radio Accessory

How to maximize the life of your battery

There are several things you can do to maximize the useful life of your battery: Dirty battery contacts are the number one source of charging problems. Clean the battery contacts with alcohol and a cotton swab from time to time. Make sure no cotton is left on the contact points. Don't leave your rechargeable batteries dormant for extended periods. Take them for a "spin around the block" every so often. Batteries that sit idle for extended periods of time without charging begin to lose their ability to hold a charge and will self-discharge, so remember to charge them again before use. Always store batteries in a cool, dry place away from heat and metal objects.

Intitial Battery Charge

Initially new batteries must be charged for 14 - 16 hours continuously. All batteries require a "break-in" period, so don't be alarmed if your battery doesn't hold a full charge right away.

Radio frequency bands

Time Out Timer feature that is used to prevent the user from transmitting on the same channel for extended periods of time. This feature also protects the radio from potential damage that could result by long time transmission.

Squelch Control

Squelch circuitry is used to reduce, or eliminate, unwanted signals and noise before they are heard in the speaker. There are two types of squelch... carrier squelch and coded squelch.

Carrier, or noise compensated squelch, is used to prevent noise from being heard in the speaker when there are no transmissions taking place.

Coded squelch allows listeners to hear only those messages intended for them. The two most common types of coded squelch are tone coded squelch, called Private-Line, and digital coded squelch, called Digital Private Line. It is important to remember that while coded squelch systems eliminate the annoyance of listening to other transmissions, they do not provide privacy.

Each radio is supplied with a switch that defeats the coded squelch circuit. This is necessary since users must listen to be sure there is no other voice traffic on the channel before transmitting. Otherwise, a transmission already in progress could be disrupted by someone else transmitting at the same time.

Radio Frequency Bands The part of the spectrum we are concerned with are the frequency bands used for radio communications. These are:

* VHF Lowband (25 MHz - 50 MHz) * VHF Highband (136 MHz - 174 MHz) * UHF Band (403 MHz - 512 MHz) * 800/900 MHz Bands

The characteristic behavior of frequencies in different bands in the spectrum is important when choosing a frequency for a radio system.

Frequency Band Characteristics

The frequency band characteristics most important to radio communications include: Propagation, Noise Interference and Range

Terrestrial trunked radio

Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) is an open digital standard defined by the European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI).

Tetra : TErrestrial Trunked RAdio

TETRA Capabilities and Features

From end user point of view, TETRA provides the following features and services:

*

Group call *

Individual call *

Telephone Interconnect Call *

Wireless data: Circuit switch and/or packet data *

Integrated Voice and Data *

Secured network with authentication and encryption *

Direct Mode Operation *

Advanced radio features and capabilities such as Dynamic Grouping, emergency call, etc

Frequency Band

Frequency bands for TETRA products that are typically found in the market today:

*

380 - 400 MHz *

410 – 430 MHz *

800 MHz Band

Some vendors have promised to provide some other band to meet requirement in specific market.

TETRA also provides a point-to-point function that traditional analogue emergency services radio systems did not provide. This enables users to have a one-to-one trunked 'radio' link between sets without the need for the direct involvement of a control room operator and or a dispatcher.

TETRA is built to do one-to-one, one-to-many and many-to-many. These operational modes are directly relevant to the public safety and professional users.

The main advantages of TETRA over other technologies (such as GSM) are: the much lower frequency used gives longer range, which in turn permits very high levels of geographic coverage with a smaller number of transmitters, thus cutting infrastructure costs.

TETRA is also designed for emergency situations, when almost instantaneous communication is required, both between individuals and within a group of an unlimited size. Priority calls can be made, backed by call pre-emption if required, and on occasions an all-informed communication.